: Writing skils



Rahal
11-29-2008, 08:45 PM
Sentence
In grammar meaning is (a group of word containing a subject and a verb. That expresses a statement, question, etc. When a sentence is written it begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop.
Types of Sentence
Statement: I like ice-cream. She did not tells me her name -1
2- Question: Do you like date? Who likes date?(why question) You like this date? (intonation)
3- Imperative: Give me your glass. Dont be afraid.
4- An exclamation: What brilliant idea! How unfortunate it was!

Writing simple and complex sentences
A simple sentence generally has a subject and verb and a complex sentence is made by joining clauses together by either sub-ordinations or co-ordination or both.
A sentence which consists of clauses linked by coordination is often called a compound sentence. (e.g. = I like ice cream but Asia doesn`t like sweet things.)

Abdelazim
11-30-2008, 09:55 AM
Thank you very much for your contribution to this forum
I am just passing to greet and thank you for your efforts
Sincerely yours
Abdelazim

Rahal
12-02-2008, 12:27 AM
Clauses
These are main structures of which sentences are built. A sentence contains at least one main clause. It may also contain subordinate clauses.
Clause structure
A clause it self contains one or more clause elements:
ELEMENT EXAMPLE USUAL POSITIN AND FORM

Conjunction
and, or, if, when
a word which begins the clause

Subject
he, she, it, they , something
a pronoun or noun phrase which comes before the verb phrase

Verb phrase
Likes, is being, has gone
the central part of the clause containing one or more verb

Object direct/indirect
the glass, Asia, people, him
a pronoun or noun phrase which follow the verb phrase.
compliment
good, very cold, a nurse, this
an adjective, an adjective phrase, noun phrase or a pronoun which follow the verb phrase and some times follows an object.
Adverbial Away, well, at home, last night. An adverb, adverb phrase, prepositional phrase or a noun phrase which often comes after the other elements in the clause

Example of clauses of two elements
Subject +Verb phrase
After arrived
The weather Has changed



Example of clauses of three elements:
Subject +Verb phrase +Object +Compliment +Adverbial
My mother Likes me
Asia Is Very happy
We Are living Not far from her

Example of clauses of three elements:
Subject +Verb phrase +Indirect object +Direct object +Compliment +Adverbial
He gave Me a glass
Money makes people greedy
Ahmed sent us all home

Main clause and subordinate clause:
Clause-1+ Clause-2

(Subject +Verb phrase +(Adverbial +Object +Verb phrase
I asked where The teacher (subject) Lived (verb phrase)
The clause (Clause-1) which contains another clause is called a (Main clause) the clause -2) which is part of the main clause is called (subordinate clause).

Rahal
12-07-2008, 11:41 PM
Paragraph

Definition:
A paragraph is a section of piece of writing. A paragraph always begins on a new line and contains at least one sentence.
How long
This depends on the information it conveys.
Expanding a definition:
What does the phrase Global Village means to you?
Building vocabulary:
Words you may be able to use in writing your paragraph.
Adjectives: isolate, cosmopolitan, multinational,, transnational and technological.
Nouns: multiculturrism, resorces, telecommunication, markets,i mmigrant and tourism.
Verbs: import, export and ifluence.


Definition:
Isolate:- to feel lonely and without friends.
Cosmopolitan:- a place or society with people from many different communities and culture.
Multinational:- a country population that to made up at general deferent nationalities.
Multi culturalisim:- a situation in which all deferent cultural or racial groups in society are treated equally.
Resources:- things that a country has and can use to icrease its wealth such as coal, iron or oil.
Telecommunication:- The technology of sending signals and massages over long distance using electronic equipment.e.g radio, internet, telephone etc.
Immigrant: some one who has come to live in a country from some other country
Diversity: is the fact that something contain many very deferent elements.
Organizing your ideas
Assume that you are going to write about how the shrinking word affects your every day life. Think about the bad and good effect of the global village.
Clustering:
Is one way of to organize your idea? It can help you to decide what to focus on when a topic is very broad ((shrink becomes more)) e.g. write the topic on a piece of paper then write ideas about it.
Communication: Radio,global TV channels, internet and computer E.mal.

English Classes-government+privat, movies,jobs and economic advantage.

Having made your cluster diagram think about which ideas would make a good paragraph.
Draw a circle around the part of the diagram{group of ideas} you want to write about.
The following questions could be used to help you:
? Is the information interestin
? Are the different ideas clearly related
? Do you have enough information for a paragraph
Can you limit the information to one paragraph ?

Rahal
12-24-2008, 12:13 AM
Paragraphing


Developing cohesion and style:-
You have to choose thecorrect part of speech when attempting to write a paragraph. You ought to use the correct forms/ of word that have different forms of different parts of speech. e.g.
1-immigration ---- hingimmigrate.
2-tourism --- touristy.(is an important source of revenue for a lot of countries)
3-many cities in the united state have . (Multiculturalism) atmosphere multicultural
This can easily be seen in the greet diversity (diverse)
4-the world is truly becoming interdependence (interdependent) no country today survive in isolation (isolate)
5- Laws which limit the importation (import) of certain products are necessary to help local enterprises grow.
6- It is almost impossible to keep up with all the recent technological (technology) changes.

Using Relative Clauses:
The relative pronouns who, which, where and that can be used to introduce relative clauses (restrictive and non restrictive) there are tow different types of relative clauses
1 Restrictive-relative:-
This tell you which person, place or thing the writer is referring to.
Important; the information in the Restrictive-relative clauses is necessary to complete the sentence. Do not use commas with relative clauses.
e.g.
A- Children who are bilingual have advantage over their monolingual play mates.
B-May and October are the months that I like best.

Explanation: if you [ omit[/COLOR] the restrictive relative clause in the above examples the sentence arein complete.
2- Non restrictive relative clause:
It gives additional information. This additional information is not necessary to complete the sentence. In non restrictive relative clause use which instead of that to refer to things. Use commas to separate a non restrictive relative clause from the restrictive of the sentence. E.g. May and October, which have the best weather, are my favored months.
Explanation: if you omit the non restrictive relative clause in the above examples the sentence are still complete.
Editing your paragraph:
Check list-
[ First check your paragraph for cohesion and style.
[Second edit your paragraph for grammar and form using the following:-
1-Content: Do your paragraph give example when necessary?
2-Organization: Do your paragraph have narrow enough focus?
3-Cohesion and style: Have used relative clause correctly?
4-Grammar: Have you used the correct part of speech?
5-Have you used full stop to end each sentence?
6-Have you punctuated relative clauses correctly?

Rahal
01-14-2009, 06:13 PM
Linking verbs

Some verbs are called linking verb because they link the subject of the clause to anther element, which describe something about the subject. The most important linking verbs is be verbs which behave like be are also linking verbs e.g. become, feel, look, get=become, seem, appear.
The chief pattern of verbs is:
A-Subject +linking verb + adjective (phrase)
E.g. the manager is too busy.
B- Subject + linking verb + noun phrase.
E.g. Foot ball is my favorite sport.
C- Subject + linking verb + adverbial
E.g. this place is where general garden died.
Main linking verb other than be.
1- Verb of seeming or perception:
The children appear happy enough.
This appeared the only solution.
The teacher is feeling very annoyed.
I felt complete idiot.
It looks a fine day.
The patient is looking much better.
The class seems rather restless.
The show seemed a greet success.
This soup smells delicious.
The party sounded very noisy.
That sounds a good idea.
Our apples tested rather sour.

2-Verb of becoming:
The hotel has become quite famous.
Fatima becomes a famous singer.
The couple ended up married.
The weather has turned very hot.
We must get ready to go.
A large dog got into garden.
Your lectures have proved very useful.
Her illness may turn a blessing.

3-Verb of remaining:
The president remains popular.
The witness kept silent.
The children must keep of sight.
You had better stay at school.
More examples:
A-Subject + linking verb+ adjective
The manager is too busy.
B- Subject +linking verb + noun phrase:
Foot ball is my favorite sport.
The object looked like a flying saucer.
D: Subject +linking verb + adverbial:
The place is where general garden died.
C: Subject + verb + as if + clause:
The milk tested as if it had been boiled.

01-14-2009, 06:15 PM
Rahal many many thanks for the usefull lessons

Rahal
01-15-2009, 10:44 PM
Rahal many many thanks for the usefull lessons


Do not mention it, my friend that means some body received something useful, just come . . . all the time we are here

Rahal
02-13-2009, 09:45 AM
Finite verb and non finite verb phrase



There are two kinds of verb forms finite and non finite.
Non finite clause is useful especially informal written English, because they do not require so many words as finite clauses.
E.g. finite clause:
Since we had arrived late and were exhausted by the journey we decided that we should go to bed.
E.g. non finite clause:
Arriving late and exhausted by the journey, we decided to go to bed immediately.
1-Finite verb form:
a-S form . . . like -likes, take- takes.
b-Basic form when used for present (like, take).
c-Past tense form . . . like- liked, take- took.
2-Non finite verb form:
A-ing form . . . like -liking-take -taking.
b- Basic form when used for the infinite.(to like-to take).
d-Past participle form: liked-taken.
Comparison:
Finite verb phrase
1-John smokes heavily
2-Mary is working hard
3-When he had left the office
4-The massage which they had sent from London never reached me.
Non finite verb phrase
1-To smoke like that must be dangerous
2-I found her working hard.
3-Having left the office, he went home by taxi.
4-The massage sent from London never reached me
.

Rahal
03-13-2009, 05:15 AM
IF Clause
There are four main kinds of condition expressed by if clause:
a- The present condition.(most often called the first condition)
b- The will condition.( most often called the first condition)
c- The would condition.( second condition)
d- The would have condition.( the third condition)
Pattern:
a- Present condition form:

Form:-
IF +PRESENT SIMPLE.
This has the present simple and means that the condition can be true at any time.
E.g. if (when) I eat too much I get fat.(this always happen)
If somebody waves a red flag it means danger.( a general rule).
In this type of condition (if) means almost the same as (when) or (when ever).
(1) The first condition:
Form: if + present simple . . . . + will/wont.
Meaning: predicting a likely (proper) result in the future. (If the condition is fulfilled).
e.g.
a- the sky looks dark if it rains this evening will get wet.
b- If Fatima phones Ill tell her that you `ve gone with Neglaa.(it is possible she will phone)
c- If you take this medicine you will soon feel better.
(2)The second condition:
Form: if+ past simple d . Would}.
Meaning: you can imagine the present or the future to be different.
E.g.
a- if I were millionaire Id by some land and beautiful house.
b- If I had a million pounds I`d give it all away.
(3)The third condition:
Form: if . . . past perfect Id / would have . Past participle.
Meaning: you could imagine the impossible i.e. something which did not happen. Here speaker is dreaming of or imagining a different past, but the past can not be changed.
e.g.
A-if Christopher Columbus had not discovered America the history of the world would have been quite different.
B- Poor man if he had driven more carefully he would not have been injured.
C- If television had not been invented, what would we have done in the evening?

03-27-2009, 08:13 PM
Congratiolation for this good work

Rahal
04-06-2009, 05:00 AM
Time Line Showing Tense

A-Present simple:
1-state: I like Nidaa.
2-single event: I resign.
3-habitual: she gets up early.
The present progressive:
4-temprory: its raining.
5- temporary habit: she`s getting up early now a days.
A-Past time:
Present perfect:
6- State up present time: Ive known her for years.
7-habit up to event(s): we`ve always gone to Arkaweet for winter.
8- Indefinite event: Ive seen better plays.
9- with present result: look you`ve ruined my trouser.
The present perfect progress:
10- Temporary habit up to present time: hes been walking since he was eight months.
11- Temporary state up to present time: I have been waiting for an hour.
12- Temporary with present result: you have been smoking.
13. Definite state: I lived in Kosti when I was young.
The past simple:
14- Definite event: I saw him yesterday.
15- Definite habit: I got up early in those days.
The past progressive:
17- Past before past time: I had visited the island once before.
18- state up to past time: I had known her since 1999.
The past perfect progressive:
19- Temporary state up to past time: they will arrive tomorrow.
Future time will and shall.
20- Future time (neutral): the letter will arrive tomorrow.
Be going to:
21-future time arising from present time: prices are going to rise.
The future progressive.
22-future time plan and arrangement: we are moving next week.
The simple present:
23-futue time as fact: the match starts at 20:00pm.
The progressive:
24-future time as a matter of course: I will see you later.
25-future time temporary: the Astronauts will be sleeping at 4:00pm.
The perfect:
26- Past in future time: the plane will have landed by then.

Rahal
04-28-2009, 08:07 PM
Spelling Rules
There are four spelling rules
Rule-1 Double the consonant. E.g. get=getting.
Rule -2 Drop the silent (e) e.g. love=loving.
Rule -3 Add e before s. e.g. pass =passes.
Rule-4 Change(y) to (i)(e) or (i.e.) to (y). e.g fly=flies,die=dying.
Explanation of rules:
Rule (1): Double the final consonant when the last two letters of a word are a single vowel letter followed by a consonant letter e.gstop,and when the ending begins with a vowel e.g ed,ing,er e.g stop-stopped-stopping.
Examples of verbs:
Verb + ing + ed + er (noun)
Get Getting - Go-getter
Plan Planning Planned -
Rob Robbing Robbed Robber
Run Running - Runner
Swim Swimming - Swimmer
Win Winning - Winner

Example of adjective stem:
Adj +er +est +ent
Big Bigger Biggest -
Sad Sadder Saddest Sadden
Hot Hotter Hottest -

In two or three syllable words the rule for doubling is changed as follows:
1- Double the final consonant if the last vowel in the word is stressed but not if its unstressed ad`mit=admitting=ad`mitted=admittance.
Be`gin=be`ginning=be`ginner.
Oc`cur=oc`curred=occurrence.
Pre`fer=pre`ferring=pre`ferred.
E.g-2
De`velop=de`veloping=de`veloped.
E`nter=e`ntering=e`ntered.
V`isit=v`isiting=v`isited.

Rule (2)
Drop the silent (E) when you add an ending with a vowel e.g ed,er,est and ing .
Example(1)
Verb +ing +ed +er (noun)
Argue Arguing Argued -
Change Changing Changed -
Come Coming Came New comer
Love Loving Loved Lover
Suppose Supposing Supposed -
Use Using Used User
Write Writing Wrote Writer

Example: (2)
Adjective +er +est
Blue Bluer Bluest
Large Larger Largest
Pale Paler Palest
White Whiter Whitest

Rule (3)
Add (E) before (S) where (S) ending comes after a hissing sound spelled s,ss,ch,tch,x,-z,-zz.
e.g verb:
They pass ~ it passes /pa:siz/.
They teach ~ he teaches /ti:t∫iz/.
They watch ~ she watches/wDt∫iz/.
They wish ~ he wishes/wi∫iz/.
e.g nouns:
Box ~ boxes.
Church ~ churches.
Bus ~ busses.
Quiz ~ quizzes.
Important:
This added (E) is never silent. it always represent the vowel of the ending /iz/ spelled (es).
Rule (4):
How to deal with (Y) and (I) after consonant? Change a final (Y) to (IE) before you add (S) e.g:
Verb:
Cry ~ her baby rarely cries.
Envy ~ he envies her because she`s rich.
Fly ~ the pilot flies.
Also try-tries, carry-carries, copy-copies.
Noun:
My family families.
A baby two babies.
A cit many cities.

Verb +ed +er (noun)
Carry Carried Carrier
Copy Copied Copier
Worry Worried Worrier
Cry Cried Crier

Change (ie) to (y) before (ing) in these verbs:
Die-dying
Tie- tying.
ADJECTIVE +ER +est. +ly
Happy Happier Happiest
Funny Funnier Funniest Funnily

ADVERB +ER +EST
Early Earlier Earliest

Rahal
06-09-2009, 11:45 PM
Letters writing:
There are two kinds of letter:
1 Personal (informal
2 Official (formal
For both kinds of letters, there is a general arrangement, you have to observe.
Personal Letter
Address and date: the writer address must go on the top corner of the paper; there are two ways of setting out the address, namely the (block) and (indented) style.
Block style: address and date would be on the upper left corner of the paper and in the Indented style on the upper right corner of the paper.
Salutation: this is the actual beginning of the letter, it usually begins with the word Dear and should be written against the left margin of the paper after a gap of one line from the address.
a- For the people we know well, we can use the form (My dear )
b- For close relation my dearest daughter.
A comma should follow this salutation.
The body: This main part of the letter, what you write will depend on the person it is being sent to and the subject matter.
The following points should be noted:
a- It is advisable to assume that you replying to a previous letter from the person you are writing to.
b- Refer to issue raised in that letter.
c- Write about any developments affecting family or friends and any thing that may be interest to the person whom you are writing the letter.
d- Greeting and conclusion.
Closing: this is ending of the letter. it is usually begin with the word(yours).
A Closing likes yours, sincerely and yours affectionately are used for close friends or acquaintances and close relation.
c- The subscription should be followed by a comma e.g. yours sincerely,
Name: put your first name only on the line below.
Note: you should not put your signature in personal letter and you should not write your full name.

06-11-2009, 10:10 AM
Dear Rahal

This is agreat topic

sweet regards

Rahal
06-17-2009, 04:04 AM
Formal letters
In addition, to the writers address the name or position being written to should appear in a formal letters. The recipients address should appear at the left hand side at the paper next to the margin, line may be or two below the writer address
The recipient address should appear on the left hand side of the page
Below the address, of the recipient you can include a reference number if one appeared in a previous letter written to you by the recipient
You should write the date below the address of the sender on the right hand side of the paper
Salutation: - the commonest form for the formal letter is (Dear Sir) if you are writing a business letter to a company and not individual we use.
Heading: every formal letter must have a heading; you must write on the line below the salutation and must be underlined.
Body of the letter: the normal practice is to start the letter with a reference to the previous letter, in a formal letter we do not greet neither do we ask about people health nor how they are getting on at work.
Closing: the standard is yours faithfully; your signature must appear on the line below the subscription. This must be on the next line, followed by your name plus your surname.

10-11-2009, 10:33 AM
i am not read all this but number one is good.